Heritage Education

Memories of the Past in the Present Caribbean Social Studies Curriculum: A View from Teacher Practice

Eldris Con Aguilar | Forthcoming

Heritage Education

Memories of the Past in the Present Caribbean Social Studies Curriculum: A View from Teacher Practice

Eldris Con Aguilar | Forthcoming

ISBN: 9789088908422

Imprint: Sidestone Press Dissertations | Format: 182x257mm | ca. 190 pp. | NEXUS 1492 | Language: English | 2 illus. (bw) | 24 illus. (fc) | Keywords: Caribbean studies; teacher education; curriculum; indigenous heritage | download cover

Publication date: 03-03-2020

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  • Bookinfo

    ISBN: 9789088908422

    Imprint: Sidestone Press Dissertations | Format: 182x257mm | ca. 190 pp. | NEXUS 1492 | Language: English | 2 illus. (bw) | 24 illus. (fc) | Keywords: Caribbean studies; teacher education; curriculum; indigenous heritage | download cover

    Publication date: 03-03-2020

This book compiles the results of a doctoral research study that sought to gain insight into how indigenous heritage is represented in the school curriculum for social studies. To this end, the questions focused on studying the relationships that are formed between individuals and the past in the school context. Taking into account teachers’ perspectives on subject content and pedagogical practices can contribute to gaining a better understanding of the role of education in safeguarding heritage.

Heritage is continuously under threat from natural disasters; in recent years, the Caribbean region has suffered due to the increasing effects of climate change. But cultural and natural heritage are also threatened by human activity when members of a society forget their relationship with heritage and consequently stop caring about safeguarding it. A negligent attitude toward heritage can lead to acts of vandalism and destruction. Such a scenario poses special challenges to the education sector, which is ultimately seen as a source for positive change and development in society.

This study, aimed at investigating the use of heritage education in the classroom, treats this subject in the form of analyses of three country case studies: the Dominican Republic, Dominica and Saint Kitts and Nevis. Along these lines, results were drawn from an informed analysis of educational policies concerning cultural heritage as well as accounts of teachers’ perspectives on subject content and pedagogical practices. This study sought to shed light on the pedagogical practices used by teachers in the context of the three countries that formed this research.

This research ultimately seeks to contribute to the fields of heritage education, teacher education and Caribbean studies by understanding the role of teacher knowledge and practices in safeguarding heritage—in this particular investigation, with a focus on the indigenous heritage of the Caribbean.

List of figures
List of tables
Abstract
Acknowledgments

Chapter 1 General introduction: Perspectives on teaching indigenous heritage in the Caribbean
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Challenging traditional perspectives on Caribbean history: Why does it matter for educational practice?
1.3 Reviving the past in the present: Teaching about the past in the contemporary Caribbean
1.4 Educational policies and Caribbean identities
1.5 Social studies: A window into understanding approaches to teaching and learning about the past in the Caribbean curriculum
1.5.1 The role of teachers in defining indigenous heritage in classroom practice
1.6 Research design for studying the teaching of indigenous heritage in the context of the study
1.7 Outline of the study

Chapter 2 Heritage education and teaching Practice
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Heritage and heritage education
2.2.1 Heritage education
2.3 The link between heritage and citizenship education
2.4 Indigenous heritage education
2.5 Teachers’ knowledge of indigenous heritage
2.6 Teachers’ knowledge: “Pedagogical Content Knowledge”
2.6.1 Content knowledge
2.6.2 Instructional strategies and representations
2.6.3 Goals and objectives of the curriculum
2.6.4 Student understanding
2.6.5 Knowledge of the context
2.7. Applications of the PCK model in indigenous heritage education
2.7.1 PCK for social studies and history
2.7.2 PCK for indigenous heritage
2.8 The role of teachers’ practical knowledge in defining indigenous heritage education
2.9 Chapter summary

Chapter 3 Methodology “Approaches to assessing indigenous heritage education from the teachers’ perspectives”
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Doing research in education
3.3 Research design3.3.1 Selection of research design and approach
3.3.2 The case-study approach
3.4 Description of the case studies: Research sites and subjects
3.4.1 Participants and sampling procedures
3.4.2 Sampling criteria
3.5 Instruments and Data Collection
3.5.1 Interviews
3.5.2 Surveys questionnaires
3.6 Analytic procedures
3.6.1 Document research and curriculum analysis
3.6.2 Analysis and interpretation of qualitative data: The interviews
3.6.3 Analysis and interpretation of quantitative data: The survey questionnaires
3.7 Chapter summary

Chapter 4 finding Liamuiga: teaching indigenous heritage education in Saint Kitts
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Historical and archaeological background of Saint Kitts
4.3 Context of study
4.3.1 The social studies curriculum in Saint Kitts and Nevis
4.3.2 Primary-school education: fostering understanding of cultural heritage
4.3.3 Secondary-school education and Caribbean Identity
4.4 Data collection, processing and interpretation
4.4.1 Teacher interviews
4.4.2 Participatory activities
4.4.3 Education and cultural stakeholders interviews
4.5 analysis and discussion of results
4.5.1 The place of indigenous heritage in the school curriculum
4.5.2 Understanding of local history and heritage
4.5.3 Need for a more integrated agenda between local institutions and the school community
4.5.4 Engaging with the past through practical experiences
4.5.5 Difficulties in bridging the gap between the island’s Amerindian heritage and contemporary society
4.6 Reflections on the current status of teaching indigenous heritage in Saint Kitts

Chapter 5 Teaching indigenous heritage in the Dominican Republic: Memories of Quisqueya in the classroom
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Archaeological and historical background of Dominican Republic
5.2.1 The first inhabitants and the origin of the Taíno
5.2.2 Narratives of national identity in Dominican historiography
5.3 Context of study: Education policy in the Dominican Republic
5.3.1 An overview of the instructional content and pedagogy of the social science curriculum in Dominican Republic
5.4 Data collection, processing and interpretation
5.4.1 Participatory activities
5.4.2 Survey Questionnaire
5.4.3 Semi-structured interview
5.4.4 Education officers and cultural stakeholders interviews
5.5. Analysis and discussion of results
5.5.1 Subject matter knowledge and curriculum
5.5.2 Instructional strategies, knowledge of the context and student understanding

Chapter 6 The presence of Wai’tu kubuli in teaching history and heritage in Dominica
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Historical and archaeological background of Dominica
6.2.1 The precolonial period
6.2.2 The Island Carib
6.2.3 Dominica today
6.3 Context of study: Education policy framework in Dominica
6.3.1 An overview of the instructional content and pedagogy of the social science curriculum in Dominica
6.4 Data collection, processing and interpretation
6.4.1 Teacher interviews
6.4.2 Participatory activities
6.4.3 Results from surveys questionnaires and interviews
6.5 Internal and external stakeholders interviews
6.5.1 Teacher training and education
6.5.2 Initiatives and activities
6.6 Analysis and discussion of results
6.6.1 Prospective: teaching and learning strategies for Kalinago heritage education

Chapter 7 discussion: the role of teachers in the formation of a balanced Caribbean identity within the framework of regional policy
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Narratives of Caribbean identity in the school curriculum
7.3 Contribution to the knowledge of teaching indigenous heritage: Tools for heritage professionals
7.4 Overcoming the challenges of education research
7.5 Prospective for studying indigenous heritage in the Caribbean region

References
Appendixes
Interview Protocol appendix A
Interview Guides (for in-service teachers, workshop participants and stakeholders, 2014) Appendix B
Interview Guide (for in-service teachers and participants of the workshops held in 2015 and 2016) Appendix C
Survey Questionnaire Appendix D
CXC Caribbean History Curriculum Indicators Appendix E
CXC Social Studies Curriculum Indicators Appendix F
Contents related to indigenous heritage in the social studies curriculum at the primary-school level, Dominican Republic appendix G
Summary of indigenous heritage in the social studies curriculum, Dominican Republic appendix H
Social studies curriculum indicator for the primary-school level, Dominican Republic appendix I

Dr. Eldris Con Aguilar

Eldris Con Aguilar is an education specialist and qualitative researcher, born in Venezuela and living in the Netherlands. In 2013 Eldris joined the Nexus 1492 team, thereby combining her research interests in education policies and Caribbean cultural heritage. Since then she has dedicated her research efforts to studying, from teachers’ perspectives, how indigenous heritage is taught in the current social studies curricula.

read more

Abstract:

This book compiles the results of a doctoral research study that sought to gain insight into how indigenous heritage is represented in the school curriculum for social studies. To this end, the questions focused on studying the relationships that are formed between individuals and the past in the school context. Taking into account teachers’ perspectives on subject content and pedagogical practices can contribute to gaining a better understanding of the role of education in safeguarding heritage.

Heritage is continuously under threat from natural disasters; in recent years, the Caribbean region has suffered due to the increasing effects of climate change. But cultural and natural heritage are also threatened by human activity when members of a society forget their relationship with heritage and consequently stop caring about safeguarding it. A negligent attitude toward heritage can lead to acts of vandalism and destruction. Such a scenario poses special challenges to the education sector, which is ultimately seen as a source for positive change and development in society.

This study, aimed at investigating the use of heritage education in the classroom, treats this subject in the form of analyses of three country case studies: the Dominican Republic, Dominica and Saint Kitts and Nevis. Along these lines, results were drawn from an informed analysis of educational policies concerning cultural heritage as well as accounts of teachers’ perspectives on subject content and pedagogical practices. This study sought to shed light on the pedagogical practices used by teachers in the context of the three countries that formed this research.

This research ultimately seeks to contribute to the fields of heritage education, teacher education and Caribbean studies by understanding the role of teacher knowledge and practices in safeguarding heritage—in this particular investigation, with a focus on the indigenous heritage of the Caribbean.

Contents

List of figures
List of tables
Abstract
Acknowledgments

Chapter 1 General introduction: Perspectives on teaching indigenous heritage in the Caribbean
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Challenging traditional perspectives on Caribbean history: Why does it matter for educational practice?
1.3 Reviving the past in the present: Teaching about the past in the contemporary Caribbean
1.4 Educational policies and Caribbean identities
1.5 Social studies: A window into understanding approaches to teaching and learning about the past in the Caribbean curriculum
1.5.1 The role of teachers in defining indigenous heritage in classroom practice
1.6 Research design for studying the teaching of indigenous heritage in the context of the study
1.7 Outline of the study

Chapter 2 Heritage education and teaching Practice
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Heritage and heritage education
2.2.1 Heritage education
2.3 The link between heritage and citizenship education
2.4 Indigenous heritage education
2.5 Teachers’ knowledge of indigenous heritage
2.6 Teachers’ knowledge: “Pedagogical Content Knowledge”
2.6.1 Content knowledge
2.6.2 Instructional strategies and representations
2.6.3 Goals and objectives of the curriculum
2.6.4 Student understanding
2.6.5 Knowledge of the context
2.7. Applications of the PCK model in indigenous heritage education
2.7.1 PCK for social studies and history
2.7.2 PCK for indigenous heritage
2.8 The role of teachers’ practical knowledge in defining indigenous heritage education
2.9 Chapter summary

Chapter 3 Methodology “Approaches to assessing indigenous heritage education from the teachers’ perspectives”
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Doing research in education
3.3 Research design3.3.1 Selection of research design and approach
3.3.2 The case-study approach
3.4 Description of the case studies: Research sites and subjects
3.4.1 Participants and sampling procedures
3.4.2 Sampling criteria
3.5 Instruments and Data Collection
3.5.1 Interviews
3.5.2 Surveys questionnaires
3.6 Analytic procedures
3.6.1 Document research and curriculum analysis
3.6.2 Analysis and interpretation of qualitative data: The interviews
3.6.3 Analysis and interpretation of quantitative data: The survey questionnaires
3.7 Chapter summary

Chapter 4 finding Liamuiga: teaching indigenous heritage education in Saint Kitts
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Historical and archaeological background of Saint Kitts
4.3 Context of study
4.3.1 The social studies curriculum in Saint Kitts and Nevis
4.3.2 Primary-school education: fostering understanding of cultural heritage
4.3.3 Secondary-school education and Caribbean Identity
4.4 Data collection, processing and interpretation
4.4.1 Teacher interviews
4.4.2 Participatory activities
4.4.3 Education and cultural stakeholders interviews
4.5 analysis and discussion of results
4.5.1 The place of indigenous heritage in the school curriculum
4.5.2 Understanding of local history and heritage
4.5.3 Need for a more integrated agenda between local institutions and the school community
4.5.4 Engaging with the past through practical experiences
4.5.5 Difficulties in bridging the gap between the island’s Amerindian heritage and contemporary society
4.6 Reflections on the current status of teaching indigenous heritage in Saint Kitts

Chapter 5 Teaching indigenous heritage in the Dominican Republic: Memories of Quisqueya in the classroom
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Archaeological and historical background of Dominican Republic
5.2.1 The first inhabitants and the origin of the Taíno
5.2.2 Narratives of national identity in Dominican historiography
5.3 Context of study: Education policy in the Dominican Republic
5.3.1 An overview of the instructional content and pedagogy of the social science curriculum in Dominican Republic
5.4 Data collection, processing and interpretation
5.4.1 Participatory activities
5.4.2 Survey Questionnaire
5.4.3 Semi-structured interview
5.4.4 Education officers and cultural stakeholders interviews
5.5. Analysis and discussion of results
5.5.1 Subject matter knowledge and curriculum
5.5.2 Instructional strategies, knowledge of the context and student understanding

Chapter 6 The presence of Wai’tu kubuli in teaching history and heritage in Dominica
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Historical and archaeological background of Dominica
6.2.1 The precolonial period
6.2.2 The Island Carib
6.2.3 Dominica today
6.3 Context of study: Education policy framework in Dominica
6.3.1 An overview of the instructional content and pedagogy of the social science curriculum in Dominica
6.4 Data collection, processing and interpretation
6.4.1 Teacher interviews
6.4.2 Participatory activities
6.4.3 Results from surveys questionnaires and interviews
6.5 Internal and external stakeholders interviews
6.5.1 Teacher training and education
6.5.2 Initiatives and activities
6.6 Analysis and discussion of results
6.6.1 Prospective: teaching and learning strategies for Kalinago heritage education

Chapter 7 discussion: the role of teachers in the formation of a balanced Caribbean identity within the framework of regional policy
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Narratives of Caribbean identity in the school curriculum
7.3 Contribution to the knowledge of teaching indigenous heritage: Tools for heritage professionals
7.4 Overcoming the challenges of education research
7.5 Prospective for studying indigenous heritage in the Caribbean region

References
Appendixes
Interview Protocol appendix A
Interview Guides (for in-service teachers, workshop participants and stakeholders, 2014) Appendix B
Interview Guide (for in-service teachers and participants of the workshops held in 2015 and 2016) Appendix C
Survey Questionnaire Appendix D
CXC Caribbean History Curriculum Indicators Appendix E
CXC Social Studies Curriculum Indicators Appendix F
Contents related to indigenous heritage in the social studies curriculum at the primary-school level, Dominican Republic appendix G
Summary of indigenous heritage in the social studies curriculum, Dominican Republic appendix H
Social studies curriculum indicator for the primary-school level, Dominican Republic appendix I

Dr. Eldris Con Aguilar

Eldris Con Aguilar is an education specialist and qualitative researcher, born in Venezuela and living in the Netherlands. In 2013 Eldris joined the Nexus 1492 team, thereby combining her research interests in education policies and Caribbean cultural heritage. Since then she has dedicated her research efforts to studying, from teachers’ perspectives, how indigenous heritage is taught in the current social studies curricula.

read more









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